Figures on the number of indigenous people are uncertain, but it is estimated that by 1650 there were around six million, after being decimated by disease and mistreatment.two. By the end of the colonial period, a heterogeneous category of legally free people mobile phone number list had emerged, considered intermediate between slaves, Indians, and whites. These people—many of whom were mestizos of various kinds—made up a quarter (in Mexico and Peru), a mobile phone number list third (in Brazil), and a half (in Colombia) of the total population.
Within the white-dominated racial hierarchy, in mobile phone number list which Indians and slaves occupied the lowest rung, the mestizo population was stratified according to various criteria, including occupation, wealth, racialized lineage, and physiognomy. Complex nomenclatures tried to organize this stratification. Although historians have debated the role in it of what mobile phone number list we might today call "race"3, ideas about a person's "blood," usually inferred through phenotypes, were very important.
Between independence (achieved, in most cases, between 1810 and 1830) and the middle of the 20th century, more than 15 million European immigrants entered mobile phone number list the region, of which 12 million went to Argentina and Brazil. There were a small number of immigrants from China, Japan, and the Middle East. Throughout Latin America, governments and elites encouraged European immigration while restricting the entry of non-white (and often Jewish) immigrants, often through covert means.